Thursday, 22 August 2013

What is an Embedded System

A simple definition

Embedded System is a combination of combination of hardware and software components to achieve certain functionalities.


Tuesday, 5 February 2013

Tips in Electronics

How to build arduino board - click here

ARM Processor

The ARM architecture describes a family of RISC-based computer processors designed and licensed by British company ARM Holdings. It was first developed in the 1980s and globally as of 2013 is the most widely used 32-bit instruction set architecture in terms of quantity produced. In 2011 alone, producers of chips based on ARM architectures reported shipments of 7.9 billion ARM-based processors, representing 95% of smartphones, 90% of hard disk drives, 40% of digital televisions and set-top boxes, 15% of microcontrollers and 20% of mobile computers.

As an IP core business, ARM Holdings itself does not manufacture its own electronic chips, but licenses its designs to other semiconductor manufacturers. ARM-based processors and systems on a chip include the Qualcomm Snapdragon, nVidia Tegra, and Texas Instruments OMAP, as well as ARM's Cortex series and Apple System on Chips (used in its iPhones). The name was originally an acronym for Advanced RISC Machine, and in its early days Acorn RISC Machine.

Using a RISC based approach to computer design, ARM processors require significantly fewer transistors than processors that would typically be found in a traditional computer. The benefits of this approach are lower costs, less heat, and less power usage, traits that are desirable for use in light, portable, battery-powered devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. The reduced complexity and simpler design allows companies to build a low-energy system on a chip for an embedded system incorporating memory, interfaces, radios, etc. The earliest example was the Apple Newton tablet but this same approach is still used in the Apple A4 and A5 chips in the iPad.

ARM periodically releases updates to its core - currently ARMv7 and ARMv8 - which chip manufacturers can then license and use for their own devices. Variants are available for each of these to include or exclude optional capabilities. Current versions use 32-bit instructions with 32-bit addressed 1 byte wide memory which is effectively reduced to just over 24 bit addressing due to 4 byte alignment, with some addressing reserved in byte wise allocation for Memory Mapped I/O, but accommodates 16-bit instructions for economy and can also handle Java byte codes which use 32-bit addresses. More recently, ARM architecture has included 64-bit versions - in 2012, Microsoft produced its new Surface tablet with ARM technology and AMD announced that it would start producing server chips based on the 64-bit ARM core in 2014.

The ARM Cortex-M is a group of 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by ARM Holdings. The cores are intended for microcontroller applications, and consists of the Cortex-M0, Cortex-M0+, Cortex-M1, Cortex-M3, Cortex-M4

Sunday, 3 February 2013


The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, read I-Triple-E) is a professional association headquartered in New York City that is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence. It has more than 400,000 members in more than 160 countries, about 51.4% of whom reside in the United States

Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi Logo.svgThe Raspberry Pi is a credit-card-sized single-board computer developed in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation with the intention of promoting the teaching of basic computer science in schools

smart dust

Smart dust is a tiny dust size device with extra-ordinary capabilities. Smart dust combines sensing, computing, wireless communication capabilities and autonomous power supply within volume of only few millimeters and that too at low cost. These devices are proposed to be so small and light in weight that they can remain suspended in the environment like an ordinary dust particle. These properties of Smart Dust will render it useful in monitoring real world phenomenon without disturbing the original process to an observable extends. Presently the achievable size of Smart Dust is about 5mm cube, but we hope that it will eventually be as small as a speck of dust. Individual sensors of smart dust are often referred to as motes because of their small size. These devices are also known as MEMS, which stands for micro electro-mechanical sensors.
The goal of the Smart Dust project is to build a self-contained, millimeter-scale sensing and communication platform for a massively distributed sensor network. This device will be around the size of a grain of sand and will contain sensors, computational ability, bi- directional wireless communications, and a power supply, while being inexpensive enough to deploy by the hundreds. The science and engineering goal of the project is to build a complete, complex system in a tiny volume using state-of-the art technologies, which will require evolutionary and revolutionary advances in integration, miniaturization, and energy management. We foresee many applications for this technology: Weather/seismological monitoring on Mars, Internal spacecraft monitoring, Land/space comm. Networks, Chemical/biological sensors, Weapons stockpile monitoring, Defense-related sensor networks, Inventory Control, Product quality monitoring, Smart office spaces, Sports - sailing, balls.

White LED

Until recently, though, the price of an LED lighting system was too high for most residential use. With sales rising and prices steadily decreasing, it's been said that whoever makes the best white LED will open a goldmine.White LED lighting has been used for years by the RV and boating crowd, running off direct current (DC) battery systems. It then got popular in off-the-grid houses, powered by photovoltaic cells. It used to be that white LED was possible only by "rainbow" groups of three LEDs -- red, green, and blue -- and controlling the current to each to yield an overall white light. Now a blue indium gallium chip with a phosphor coating is used to create the wave shift necessary to emit white light from a single diode. This process is much less expensive for the amount of light generated. Each diode is about 1/4 inch and consumes about ten milliamps (a tenth of a watt). Lamps come in various arrangements of diodes on a circuit board. Standard arrays are three, six, 12, or 18 diodes, or custom sizes -- factories can incorporate these into custom-built down lights, sconces and surface-mounted fixtures. With an inexpensive transformer, they run on standard 120-volt alternating current (AC), albeit with a slight (about 15% to 20%) power loss. They are also available as screw-in lamps to replace incandescent. A 1.2 watt white LED light cluster is as bright as a 20-watt incandescent lamp.

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